African American News and Issues - http://aframnews.com/
Addressing current and historical realities affecting our community.
Asian American History Websites - http://www.cetel.org/res.html
Asians in America - http://www.asiansinamerica.org/
The Asians in America Project is a national clearinghouse for news and information on Asian Pacific America
Asian Pacific American Institute for Congressional Studies - http://apaics.org/resources/political-database//
Database of Asian American elected officials.
Asian Studies and Organizations Resources - http://www.aasianst.org/links/index.htm%20
This site is sponsored by the Association for Asian Studies based in Ann Arbor, Michigan. They are a not-for-profit, non-political, scholarly organization responsible for publishing the Journal of Asian Studies.
Black Excel- The College Help Network - http://www.blackexcel.org/
Black Excel was recently named as a major college help resource in editions of Ebony (Sept. 2006) and Black Enterprise (Oct. 2006, Aug. 2008). Founder Isaac Black, has been a keynote speaker for the College Board (New York City).
Black Girls Rock - http://www.blackgirlsrockinc.com/
BLACK GIRLS ROCK! Inc. is 501(c)3 non-profit youth empowerment and mentoring organization established to promote the arts for young women of color, as well as to encourage dialogue and analysis of the ways women of color are portrayed in the media.
Diversity Inc. - http://www.diversityinc.com/
Diversity Inc’s mission is to bring education and clarity to the business benefits of diversity.
Latino Mental Health Resources - http://www.nami.org/Content/NavigationMenu/Find_Support/Multicultural_Support/Resources/Latino_Resources.htm
Provides Latino/a community with mental health resources and information.
Latino Resources - http://latinoresources.org/
The vision of Latino Resources is to ensure all Latinos have the most complete and accurate information made available to them regarding education, health/wellness, housing and immigration rights so that accessible and equitable opportunities will strengthen and empower their lives.
League of United Latin American Citizens - http://lulac.org/
The Mission of the League of United Latin American Citizens is to advance the economic condition, educational attainment, political influence, housing, health and civil rights of the Hispanic population of the United States.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People - http://www.naacp.org/
Founded in 1909, the NAACP is the nation's oldest and largest civil rights organization.
National Association for Multicultural Education - http://nameorg.org/
Advancing and advocating for social justice and equity.
National Council of Negro Women - http://www.ncnw.org/
Their mission is to lead, develop and advocate for women of African descent as they support their families and communities.
National Organization for People of Color Against Suicide - http://www.nopcas.com/
Promotes life-affirming strategies that will help to decrease life-threatening behaviors. It is our aim to develop prevention, intervention, and post intervention support services to the families and communities impacted adversely by the effects of violence, depression, and suicide in an effort to decrease life-threatening behavior.
Smithsonian Latino Center - http://latino.si.edu/education/education_LatinoResources.htm
National Museum of American History's Latino Resources.
South Asian American Digital Archive - http://www.saadigitalarchive.org/
Independent non-profit organization working to document, preserve and provide access to South Asian American history through a digital-only archive.
The Office Of Minority Health - http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/
The Office is dedicated to improving the health of racial and ethnic minority populations through the development of health policies and programs that will help eliminate health disparities.
Scholarships for African American Students-
Scholarships for Asian Students-
Scholarships for Latin American Students-
Scholarships for American Indian/ Native American Students-
The first year of college marks a significant milestone in your transition to adulthood. As you settle into a campus routine, you will most likely be tasked with adjusting to being separated from your family, forming new friendships, and coping with a more rigorous academic curriculum. Although it is often exhilarating to gain a new sense of independence and responsibility during this process, at times you may find it difficult to juggle the demands of your social and academic life. Unfortunately, among students of color, the common stressors of the college experience are often compounded by the burden of race-related stress, stereotype threat, and the imposter phenomenon. The purpose of this information is to define race-related stress and the impact it can have on the academic and social success of students of color. Additionally, it will provide tips on how to effectively cope with race-related stress and maximize one’s academic potential.
Racism and Race-Related Stress
As a student of color, the additional frustrations you may experience might be the result of racism, which leads to race-related stress. Racist actions usually involve some form of racial prejudice and discrimination. However, at times you may find yourself questioning whether you were a victim of a racist act. This is a common reaction because modern-day racism tends to be covert in nature. Additionally, perpetrators may not recognize their actions as racist because their behavior does not mimic the more overt forms of racism commonly seen in the past. The uncertainty that can accompany perceptions of racism is often due to a misunderstanding of the behaviors that constitute racism. To understand racism it may be helpful to understand the concepts of prejudice and discrimination.
What is prejudice?
Prejudice refers to any negative beliefs, feelings, judgments, or opinions we hold about people based on their group membership. The group membership does not necessarily have to involve race/ethnicity. People can be prejudiced based on several group categories such as religious affiliation, political affiliation, membership in a sorority/fraternity, a particular major (e.g., believing that math/science majors are nerds), gender, sexual orientation, or socioeconomic status. Prejudice that is based on an individual’s race/ethnicity is known as “racial prejudice.” If we hold negative beliefs against members of a different group, these negative beliefs may cause us to discriminate against members of that group.
What is discrimination?
Discrimination occurs when a person is harassed or treated less favorably because of their membership in a particular group. These groups can be based on race/ethnicity, political affiliation, religious affiliation, gender, age, sexual orientation, disability status, socioeconomic status, etc. An example of discrimination is a student organization that refuses to accept members of a certain racial/ethnic group.
What is racism?
Racism is racial prejudice that has been incorporated into the functions of major institutions, corporations, and social systems such as universities, healthcare organizations, banking, housing, and governmental policies. Racism leads to discriminating against a minority racial/ethnic group while maintaining the benefits and privileges of a majority racial/ethnic group which holds most of the power within the major institutions, corporations, and social systems. When the majority group in power makes decisions based upon racial prejudice, this can lead to unjust sociopolitical barriers and policies against the minority group.
When students of color experience racism, it not only causes problems in their social and economic lives, but also negatively impacts their physical and psychological health. Race-related stress refers to the psychological distress associated with experiences of racism. It is important to understand that you can experience race-related stress even if you were mistaken that a racist act occurred. Race-related stress reactions only require that a person believes that they were the victim of racism. Below is a listing of the detrimental effects of race-related stress:
Intense emotional reactions:
- Substance Use
- Heart Disease
- Muscle Tension
These psychological and physical effects can have a significant effect on your daily life. For example, if you feel isolated due to experiences of racism, you may be reluctant to interact with students from different racial/ethnic backgrounds or participate in campus activities such as student organizations, intramural sports, classroom discussions, and study groups. You may also experience a phenomenon known as stereotype threat, which involves the fear that one’s actions will confirm existing stereotypes about a person’s self-identified racial/ethnic group. Students of color who experience stereotype threat may begin to believe that their peers do not regard them as individuals, but as representatives of their racial/ethnic group. The anxiety that often accompanies stereotype threat can have a negative affect on your performance on academic tasks such as class participation, assignments, and exams. Stereotype threat can also lead to the Imposter Phenomenon if you internalize the negative racial stereotypes about the capabilities of your racial/ethnic group.
What is the Imposter Phenomenon?
The Imposter Phenomenon can occur if you do not believe that you are as intellectually capable as your peers or have the skills necessary to fulfill the requirements of your role as a student. These beliefs may lead you to dismiss any academic or career-related successes as based upon external factors such as beginner’s luck, extra work effort, networking with influential people, or filling a perceived quota (e.g., “I was only offered the internship because they needed more female interns”). The Imposter Phenomenon can occur across gender, racial/ethnic groups, socioeconomic status, and careers. Therefore, if you suffer from feelings of inadequacy, you are not alone. There are surgeons, lawyers, architects, graduate students, accomplished novelists, performers, historians, and professors who also struggle with the Imposter Phenomenon.
Effects of the Imposter Phenomenon:
- Denial of competence
- Life dissatisfaction
Many people who experience the Imposter Phenomenon believe that they are the only ones who have these beliefs or feelings. They live in constant fear of the “truth” of their capabilities being discovered by their peers, superiors, students, partners, etc. and, therefore, work very hard to succeed and gain recognition while wearing a mask of self-confidence. People with imposter feelings are often skilled at convincing others that they are confident, self-assured, and proud of their accomplishments. However, the disconnect between their outward appearance and their inner emotional state contributes to a feeling of overall life dissatisfaction. As a college student, if you suffer from the Imposter Phenomenon, you may avoid answering questions in class or having a professor review a paper due to fear of negative evaluations. A successful completion of a project may cause only temporary happiness because the success is not recognized as proof of one’s capabilities. Likewise, an unsuccessful project may be perceived as validation of one’s perceived lack of intelligence and/or skill.
Recommendations for Coping with Race-Related Stress and the Imposter Phenomenon
Fortunately, there ways to combat the negative effects of race-related stress and produce positive outcomes.
- Build a support network. You are not the only person dealing with race-related stress and connecting with other people with similar experiences and feelings can help you successfully navigate racism.
- If spirituality plays an important role in your life, utilize your belief system as a way to cope with stress. This could involve connecting with others who share your spiritual beliefs, confiding in your spiritual leaders, or participating in your spiritual rituals (e.g., prayer, meditation).
- Having a positive cultural identity and strong sense of self is particularly helpful in combating race-related stress, stereotype threat, and the Imposter Phenomenon. Take classes that focus on the historical experiences and contributions of your cultural group and join campus organizations that celebrate your cultural norms and ideals.
- Make positive reinterpretations of negative thoughts and reframe negative situations with a three step process:
- Identify negative feelings. For instance, a failing grade on an examination may lead to the negative thought “The admissions committee made a mistake when they accepted me.”
- Perform a reality check. Understand that your feelings can often distort the reality of the situation. Think of examples that counter the negative thoughts and feelings that you are experiencing. For instance, the admissions committee most likely made their decision because your past academic performance fit their acceptance criteria. Additionally, failure on one examination does not automatically indicate that you cannot succeed in any of your classes.
- Make a positive reinterpretation. You can reframe the initial negative thought by saying “The admissions committee accepted me because they believe in my potential to succeed” and “I know I am a highly capable person and I can improve my academic performance with additional support.” You can also reframe your experiences with racism with statements such as “This can only make me stronger” or “My elders have gone through this and persevered and so can I.”
- Become involved in social action.
- Document acts of racism or intolerance. Don’t ignore or minimize your experiences, and think broadly about what could be an act of racism. It doesn't have to be an overt act (e.g., professor consistently not calling on you or minimizing your contributions, curriculum racially biased, etc). Talk to someone you trust and report it.
- Be strategic in social action. When attempting to change policy or procedures, it is important that you do this effectively by:
- Be clear about what it is you want to see change.
- Be clear about how you see that change being implemented.
- Make sure you talk to the person/department that will most likely be able to get you want you want.
- Be mindful about timing (e.g., when is it the time to share your experiences and frustrations, when is it time to work on change and demands, when is it time to negotiate).
- Don’t work in isolation. Get a team so that the work on these tasks aren’t so daunting for any one person.
- Call people out when you witness acts of injustice and intolerance.
- Try not to get discouraged. Change doesn't happen overnight and movements are a long process. Remember that you are one cog in the wheel, and your contribution, no matter how small you may think it is, is a vital component of the movement.
- Don’t underestimate the power you have to make change. Student involvement has been instrumental in starting major movements throughout history.
Additional Resources on the Topic
Clance, P.R. (1985). The Impostor Phenomenon: Overcoming the Fear That Haunts Your Success. Atlanta: Peachtree Publishers.
Sue, D. (2003). Overcoming Our Racism: The Journey to Liberation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Information above obtained by the Counseling Center at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign